|Department:||Department of Experimental Physics|
|Course director:||Sándor Bohátka|
|Type of assessment:||B, G|
Survey of basic concepts of vacuum physics based on the kinetic theory of gases (pressure, velocity distribution, mean free path, transport phenomena, diffusion). Pressure measurement (total pressure: liquid, mechanical, heat conductance, ionisation, capacitive, viscosity; partial pressure: mass spectrometers). Gas flow types, flow resistance/conductance, connection of resistances. Flow through a diaphragm and tubes. Pumping speeds, pump-down time. Operation and maintenance of pumps. Forevacuum: liquid ring, rotary, roots, scroll, sorption pumps. (Ultra)high vacuum: turbomolecular, oil-diffusion, cryo, sublimation, and getter-ion pumps. Construction guidance, elements, accessories and materials of vacuum systems, principles of operation and practical hints. Sources of gases and vapours in a vacuum system, leak testing methods and instruments, cleaning. Calculation of required pumping speeds, dimensions of pipes and orifices. Practice with vacuum gauges, pump systems, basic measurements with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Visiting accelerators, electron-spectroscopic and cryogenic laboratories. Survey of industrial applications of vacuum physics, trends of research and development.